أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

{فأما الزَّبد فيذهب جُفاء وأما ما ينفع الناس فيمكث في الأرض}- سورة الرعد، الآية 17

السبت، أبريل 17، 2010

مشاريع معمارية




" بيوت الحضر"
رؤ ية معاصرة للمسكن الطرابلسي التقليدي


تصميم وعرض/ جمال الهمالي اللافي

في هذا العرض نقدم محاولة لا زالت قيد الدراسة، لثلاثة نماذج سكنية تستلهم من البيت الطرابلسي التقليدي قيمه الفكرية والاجتماعية والمعمارية والجمالية، والتي اعتمدت على مراعاة عدة اعتبارات اهتم بها البيت التقليدي وتميزت بها مدينة طرابلس القديمة شأنها في ذلك شأن كل المدن العربية والإسلامية التقليدية وهي:
· الاعتبار المناخي.
· الاعتبار الاجتماعي ( الخصوصية السمعية والبصرية/ الفصل بين الرجال والنساء).
· اعتبارات الهوية الإسلامية والثقافة المحلية.

أولا/ الاعتبار المناخي:
تم مراعاة هذا الاعتبار من خلال إعادة صياغة لعلاقة الكتلة بمساحة الأرض المخصصة للبناء، بحيث تمتد هذه الكتلة على كامل المساحة بما فيها الشارع، والاعتماد على فكرة اتجاه المبنى إلى الداخل، وانفتاحه على الأفنية الداخلية، دون اعتبار لفكرة الردود التي تفرضها قوانين المباني المعتمدة كشرط من شروط البناء( التي تتنافى شروطها مع عوامل المناخ السائد في منطقتنا).
وتعتبر فكرة الكتل المتلاصقة معالجة مناخية تقليدية، أصبح الساكن أحوج إليها من ذي قبل بعد الاستغناء عن البناء بمادتي التراب والطين إضافة للحجر، التي يتحقق بها التكييف الطبيعي للفراغات الداخلية، التي تمّ الاستعاضة عنهما بمادة الإسمنت غير الصحية والتي استوجبت بدورها اللجوء إلى استخدام التكييف الصناعي وما ترتب عنه من مخاطر صحية أكبر.

ثانيا/ الاعتبار الاجتماعي:
يتفق الاعتباران المناخي والاجتماعي في الكثير من المعالجات المعمارية للمسكن، كما يتفقان في تخطيط كامل مرافق المدينة. فتلاصق كتلة المسكن مع حدود قطعة الأرض المقام عليها من جميع الأطراف، إلى جانب الحماية البيئية من العوامل الجوية يوفر أيضا الخصوصية البصرية والسمعية للسكان.
والمأمول في هذا الجانب، أن يعاد تطبيق فكرة الكتل المتلاصقة، وذلك لتحقيق نتائج أفضل من تلك التي أهملتها قوانين المباني المستنسخة بنوذها عن النموذج الغربي.

ثالثا/ اعتبارات الهوية الإسلامية والثقافة المحلية:
كثر الجدل حول هذا الاعتبار من ناحيتين:
إحداهما، ترى أن تكرار تلك المفردات والعناصر المعمارية التقليدية وإعادة استخدامها في المساكن المعاصرة يعكس فقرا لدى المعماري في استحداث أفكار لعناصر ومفردات جديدة تتماشى مع روح العصر.

والأخرى، ترى ضرورة التماشي مع كل جديد دون اعتبار لمسألة الهوية الثقافية، وهي دعوة صارخة لعولمة الثقافة بصفة عامة " والعمارة من ضمنها"، إنطلاقا من أن العالم أصبح قرية صغيرة، ولا يجب أن تقف مسألة الهوية الثقافية عائقا أمام تواصل المجتمعات مع أحدث المنتجات بغض النظر عن المنشأ أو الملاءمة البيئية أو الثقافية. والمهم في الأمر مدى تلبيتها لمتطلبات العصر وطبيعته الإستهلاكية. حتى أضحى مفهوم الثقافة التي كانت راسخة الجذور في يوم ما مجرد موضة تتغير بتغير فصول السنة.
وفي مقابل هذين التوجهين يتجه الطرح هنا إلى إعادة تأصيل القيم الحضارية للبيت الطرابلسي التقليدي واستثمار المخزون الثقافي ممثلا في المفردات المعمارية التقليدية والمعالجات البيئية، دون اعتبار لهذه التوجهات. إنطلاقا من مبدأ أن الهم يتجه إلى معالجة المشاكل والتغلب على مكامن القصور في تصميم النموذج التقليدي للبيت الطرابلسي، والمحافظة على عناصر القوة التي شكلتها عبر العصور خبرات الأجداد لتتشكل منها هوية هذه البيئة العمرانية. وليس استعراض العضلات الفكرية في استحداث أشكال لا تحمل أكثر من رغبة محمومة وغبية للتميز والتفرد- هذا إن تجاوزنا عن اتهامها بالتغريب الثقافي- الأمر الذي يناقض الهدف الأسمى للعمارة، وهو توفير بيئة صالحة لمعيشة الإنسان، تحترم عقله وثقافته وآدميته وخصوصيته.

أولا/ التوزيع الفراغي في المسكن التقليدي:
قبل الشروع في عرض النماذج الثلاث المقترحة، لابد لنا من وقفة مع البيت الطرابلسي التقليدي لنتعرف على مكامن القوة والضعف في توزيعه الفراغي، ومثالنا في ذلك أحد بيوت عائلة الثني (متوسطة الحجم) بمدينة طرابلس القديمة والذي يقع بزنقة الثني المتفرع عن زنقة المفتي. حيث نلاحظ الآتي:
  • أن الفناء يتوسط البيت وهو يشكل منطقة الحركة والانتقال بين باقي الفراغات، إضافة لكونه مركز نشاطات العائلات الطرابلسية.
  • دورة المياه ( وتسمى الكنيف أيضا) كذلك المطبخ يأخذان في غالب البيوت منطقة منعزلة وصغيرة جدا من أركان البيت.
  • تكرار حجرة القبول، التي تمثل فراغا متعدد الأنشطة( نوم الوالدين والأبناء، استقبال النساء، المعيشة، الأكل، التخزين)، وهي تأخذ شكلا طوليا مستطيلا لا يتجاوز الضلع الأصغر منه 2.70 متر، وهو الحد الأقصى لقدرة أخشاب السنور( جدوع النخيل) على تحمل سقف المبنى.
  • وحيث أن هذا البيت يمثل نموذجا لبيوت التجار، فنجد أن ضيافة الرجال تقع في الدور العلوي والتي يتم الوصول إليها من خلال سلالم موجود بسقيفة المدخل ومقابلا لمدخل البيت مباشرة.

ثانيا/ التوزيع الفراغي في المسكن المعاصر:
اعتمد تصميم هذا المسكن على عدة عناصر وأفكار وقيم، تمّ استثمارها كما أشرنا في البداية من خلال استلهام القيم المعمارية للبيت الطرابلسي والقيم التخطيطية لمدينة طرابلس القديمة والمدينة الإسلامية بصفة عامة ومزجهما معا. ومن أهم هذه العناصر:
1. الفراغات الخارجية:
· الأفنية الداخلية والساحات العامة.
· الساباط: وهو المنطقة المظللة أو المسقوفة من الشوارع.
· الأكتاف الداعمة التي تربط بين المباني المتقابلة.
فمن خلال الحركة بين المساحات المفتوحة ( الفراغات الخارجية) في هذه النماذج من البيوت المقترحة نعيد صياغة هذه العناصرة المعمارية ( الأفنية والساحات، الأكتاف، الساباط) وطرحها من جديد في تشكيل العناصر المعمارية والفراغية للبيت الطرابلسي المعاصر. حيث تم تقديم صياغة مختلفة للفناء وذلك بنقله خارج البيت، بحيث لا يضطر أصحابه للتنقل عبره كلما أرادوا الانتقال بين فراغات البيت، وهو ما يجنبهم مشاكل التعاطي مع الظروف المناخية القاسية وخصوصا في فصل الشتاء( البرد القارص، سقوط الأمطار) أو في فصل الصيف (أشعة الشمس الحارقة، الحر الشديد، الزوابع الرملية والأتربة).

لهذا تمّ هنا الدمج بين الساحات والأفنية، بحث يشتغل الفناء كساحة وتشتغل الساحة كفناء خاص بكل بيت، وتطل بعض الأروقة ونوافذ الغرف على هذا الفناء( الساحة)، مستفيدة من الخصوصية التي حققها البيت من خلال تلاصق حدوده مع الجيران، وإطلالة كل فراغاته على هذا الفناء.

كما تم التخلص من الأسوار والردود الأمامية أيضا والسماح لعناصر الواجهة الأمامية بالظهور مباشر على الشارع بكل مفرداتها المعمارية المحلية، مثل المدخل الرئيسي والمشربية الخشبية والنوافذ المحمية بالمشغولات المعدنية، بأشكالها المتنوعة.
وهذا الأمر سيقلل من تكلفة بناء الأسوار التي تحيط بالبيت، وتقف عائقا بصريا أمام جماليات الواجهات، التي حولت المجاورات السكنية إلى غابة من الأسوار، يتحرك بينها المشاة، دون أن يستشعروا جماليات المكان.
مفتاح الكتل/
اللون السماوي- الفناء/ الساحة
اللون الأحمر- مضاقة الرجال
اللون الأخضر- الحديقة
اللون البني- ممرات الحركة الخارجية
اللون الأسود- المناطق المسقوفة من ممرات الحركة الخارجية
اللون الرمادي- باقي فراغات المسكن
اللون الأبيض- الأقواس(الأكتاف)

تنسيق الحديقة/
إضافة أخرى تم أخذها بعين الاعتبار، وهي تقسيم حديقة البيت بطريقة يمكن من خلالها الاستثمار الأمثل لهذا الفراغ الحيوي في كل بيت، بحيث توزع في شكل مربعات أو مستطيلات على الاتجاهات المختلفة للبيت، وهو ما يسمح لأصحاب البيت بالاستمتاع بالجلسات الخارجية خلال فترات اليوم المختلفة، فحيث يوجد الظل ونسمة الهواء العليل توجد مساحة للجلوس وممارسة النشاطات اليومية، دون كدر أو عائق مناخي ينغص متعة الراحة والاسترخاء. كما تم تنسيق مجموع هذه الحدائق بطرق مختلفة، فمنها المساحات المبلطة مع وجود مساحة خضراء صغيرة تزرع فيها أحد أنواع الأشجار المثمرة. في حين تغلب المساحة الخضراء وحدائق الزهور على مساحات أخرى.

كما تمّ إعادة الاعتبار للأشجار والنباتات المحلية" النخيل، شجرة التين، شجرة العنب، شجرة الليمون، نبات العطر، الإكليل، النعناع، الورد العربي، الفل والياسمين، شجرة الجهنمية، ونبتة ورق التفاح" في تنسيق الحدائق بالبيت.
إن إضفاء لمسات بسيطة من هذا النوع لها وقع أكبر من أي أشكال أخرى يمكن اعتمادها في زخرفة وتنسيق وتأثيث المبنى من الداخل والخارج، وفي الوقت نفسه أقل تكلفة اقتصاديا.

موقف للسيارات:
في هذا النمط من البيوت تمّ الأخذ في الاعتبار توفير موقف للسيارات والذي يرتبط مباشرة بمدخل يتصل بالمطبخ وغرفة المعيشة.

2. الفراغات الداخلية:
أما الفراغات الداخلية، فقد تم الاعتماد على كل التفاصيل المعمارية والزخارف المحلية في تشكيلها، مع مراعاة إعادة تشكيل هذه الفراغات ومساحاتها بما يتناسب مع الوظائف المستجدة واستقلالية وخصوصية كل نشاط.( معيشة، نوم رئيسة، نوم الأبناء، استقبال نساء)، الأمر الذي كان يتم في السابق في فراغ واحد متعدد الأنشطة" دار القبول أو القبو".
· فراغ استقبال الضيوف الرجال:
تمّ فصل فراغ استقبال الرجال عن باقي فراغات البيت وعزله في جهة مستقلة لتوفير الخصوصية التامة لأصحابه، كذلك الضيوف، وتمّ مراعاة قربه من المطبخ، حيث يسهل التخديم عليه. وقد تم استثمار السدة كفراغ لنوم الضيوف وكعنصر جمالي مدموج ضمن عناصر تأثيت استقبال الرجال.

· فراغات النوم:
تمّ إعادة توظيف فكرة السدة( كفراغ للنوم) في حجرات نوم الأبناء، وطرحها في قالب جديد، يجمع بين الأصالة والمعاصرة.


  • الخدمات:
تمّ توفير مساحات مناسبة للمطبخ والحمامات تكون ملائمة لمتطلبات الأسرة الليبية المعاصرة.


المفردات المعمارية والعناصر الزخرفية/
في تصميم هذا البيت تم التعامل مع عناصر الزخرفة أو العناصر الجمالية، على هذا الأساس حيث أخذ في الاعتبار:
1. استعمال المشغولات المعدنية بزخارفها المحلية لحماية النوافذ. التي تمّ تصنيعها باستخدام عملية الطرق على النار.... كذلك شكل الأبواب والشبابيك فقد تم تقريبها من الأشكال التقليدية مع بعض التحويرات التي تتماشى مع روح العصر.

2. جميع الأرضيات في البيت استعملت فيها بلاطات من مادة البورسلين المزركش بأشكال متعددة وبتدرجات بين اللون البني الداكن والفاتح.

3. تم طلاء جميع الحوائط الخارجية والداخلية باللون الأبيض أما الأبواب والشبابيك والمشغولات المعدنية فقد تم طلاؤها باللون الأخضر تماشيا مع ثقافة اللون المحلية ومراعاة لظروف بيئية:
• اعتماد اللون الأبيض في الحوائط الداخلية مأخوذ فيه عناصر تأثيث البيت من جلسات ومفارش وبسط وسجاد يحتوي على زخارف مختلفة الأشكال والألوان وبالتالي فإن وجودها لن يشكل تشويش للعين لأن لون الحوائط سينسجم معها ويقلل من حدتها مثلما يعطيها فرصة للبروز كعنصر زخرفي.
• الملاحظ في ديكورات البيوت المعاصرة أن أصحابها لا يستوعبون دور عناصر التأثيث والإضاءة في إثراء محتويات البيت، فيسارعون إلى الإكثار من العناصر الزخرفية وتضخيم حجمها ليملأ فراغ البيت... وبعد تأثيث البيت يتم ملاحظة مدى التشويش الحاصل والتداخل لهذه العناصر مع بعضها البعض.

4. استخدام أطر بسيطة وصغيرة الحجم من الجبس لزخرفة الأسقف ، وفي بعض الممرات والمطبخ استعملت الكمرات الخشبية المتعارف عليها في البيوت التقليدية.

5. إدخال النباتات الداخلية" نباتات الظل" كعنصر إثراء لتفاصيل البيت الداخلية وهي موضوعة في أصص من الفخار الذي تم استجلابه من منطقة غريان" وهي مدينة جبلية تتميز عن باقي المدن بشهرتها في صناعة الفخار"... وتحتوي هذه الفخاريات على زخارف هندسية ونباتية بدرجات متفاوتة من اللون البني والأبيض والأحمر الفاتح.

6. استعمال مادة الحجر الطبيعي المعروف في ليبيا باسم" الترافرتينو- وهي كلمة إيطالية محرّفة" في تكسية نهايات ذروة السطح بسمك 2سم وعرض 20 سم ، وتكسية نهايات كل بروز إلى جانب أرضيات النوافذ والتجاويف الموجودة في الحوائط والتي تستعمل لوضع التحف والكتب.

7. تعريشة الخشب في بعض الشرفات عنصر جمالي يرمي بظلاله على جماليات البيت، كذلك النباتات التي تملأ الحديقة بأزهارها فهي عناصر جمالية أخرى تثري هذه الجماليات.

وأخيرا/ فوانيس الإضاءة الموزعة على كتلة وأسوار المبنى، فقد تم الحرص على اختيار نوع متوفر يتسم بالبساطة. وفوق مدخل البيت وضع فانوس له ذراع طويلة بعض الشئ وعلى ذراعه زخرفة من المشغولات المعدنية التقليدية.
هذا الفانوس من إنتاج محلي في فترة الاحتلال الإيطالي
تمّ العثور عليه فوق سطح مسجد السويح بمدينة جنزور، وسيتم إعادة تصنيع نماذج مختلفة منه

اعتبارات اقتصادية وثقافية/
من خلال مراجعة لأسعار مواد البناء والتشطيب، فقد تمّ الأخذ في الاعتبار التوفير في كلفة بعض التفاصيل والتشطيبات في هذا التمط من المساكن من خلال:
·         عدم التكلف في استخدام الجبس واستبداله في الممرات" بكمرات خشبية"  10x10 سم.
·         استخدام خشب نوع( بينو أو بشباي- والذي ثبت مناسبته أكثر للعوامل المناخية) في تنفيذ الأبواب والنوافذ والديكورات الخشبية وطلاؤه باللون الأخضر أو البني، بدلا من استخدام أنواع الخشب غالية الثمن مثل( الماهوجن أو الزان).
·         استخدام بلاطات الزليز المزخرف أو البورسلين بدلا من أنواع الرخام غالي التكلفة.
·         طلاء حوائط البيت من الداخل والخارج باللون الأبيض وهو أرخص ألوان الطلاء، إضافة إلى اللون الأخضر كطلاء للمشغولات المعدنية والخشبية، كمعالجة مناخية وتعبير ثقافي.

·         بناء عناصر التأثيث بالمطابخ والحمامات وحجرات النوم وأحواض الاستحمام ودواليب الملابس وسدة النوم وجلسات استقبال الضيوف باستخدام الطوب بدلا من الخشب، وهو ما يحقق تكلفة اقتصادية كبيرة، وعمرا افتراضيا أكبر لهذه العناصر. كما تقلل بعض الشئ من استخدام الخشب، الأمر الذي يحقق معالجة بيئية من خلال استهلاك أقل لخشب الغابات في تأثيث البيوت.

الأفكار المقترحة/

النموذج الأصغر:
بالنسبة لهذا النموذح يأتي متأخرا عن النموذج الثاني والثالث، فقد بدأ تصميمه مع مدخل العام 2010م، وهو قيد التنفيذ بمنطقة الحشان.

النموذج المتوسط:
هذا البيت يعتبر النموذج الأول الذي تمّ تصميمه سنة 1989م. وتوقف العمل به حتى العام 2008م.

النموذج الكبير:
هذا النموذج مصمم لمواطن تتكون عائلته- بالإضافة له وزوجته- من 6 بنات وولدين. ولهذا الاعتبار تعددت غرف النوم.
تمّ تصميمه في أواخر العام 2009م.

متطلبات الساكن/
  • إضافة حجرة نوم للضيوف وحمام وتخديم ملاصقة لحجرة استقبال الرجال.
  • عزل جناح النوم الرئيسي بالكامل عن باقي البيت، الأمر الذي أخذ في الاعتبار عند تصميم شكل السلالم ، بحيث تأخذ اتجاهين مخالفين. وبعد ذلك تراجع ليطالب بحلقة وصل تم تحقيقها من خلال إعادة صياغة توزيع حجرات نوم البنات بحيث ترك في نهاية الممر بابا يصل بحجرة النوم الرئيسية.






النموذج الأصغر في مرحلة التشطيب/
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هناك 469 تعليقًا:

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    توفيق عياد الشقروني

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  3. السلام عليكم
    حقيقة عمل مميز وأكثر من رائع وصاحبه لديه هدف نبيل يسعى لتوصيله. نتمنى لكم التوفيق فى مهمتكم. مزيد من العطاء
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  4. بارك الله فيكم أخي الكريم باشمهندس سالم الترهوني على هذه المشاركة المعبرة عن أواصر الأخوة والعلاقة الطيبة التي تربطني بكم.

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  5. السلام عليكم ..
    جهد كبير وقيم باارك الله فيك ولك ..ووفقك للمزيد من العطاء الهادف ..

    معمارية متابعة لمدونتك داائما

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  6. الأخت الكريمة معمارية
    وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته أولاً... وفيك بارك الله ثانيا، مع تمنياتي أن تلقى المدونة دائما اهتمام متابعيها، وأن يجدوا فيها الفائدة العلمية التي ترتقي إلى تطلعاتهم العلمية.

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  7. ما هذا التألق و ما هذه الروعة يا بشمهندس جمال .. يسرني أن أرى في بلدي مهتم مثلك بالمعمار التقليدي الذي اندثر ليس لعيب فيه و إنما لسوء فهم الأبناء لتراث الآباء . أحييك بكل ما للتحية من معنى و أتمنى لك الظفر بنجاحات كبرى في المستقبل . و أن نرى أعمالك منتشرة في طرابلس الأصالة التي تحررت من قبضة البدو و الأعراب ..
    أبوبكر عبد السلام أبوسعد من تاجوراء .. مغرم و عاشق للتراث المعماري الطرابلسي .

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  9. شى جميل ورائع وقيمة كبيرة للابداع الليبي المتميز وللك وانمنى للك التوفيق

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  11. هويدا العالم23 نوفمبر 2011 3:54 ص

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    لا تتصور مقدار اعجابي بمجهوداتك الرائعة والتي نحتاج منها الكثير لنهضة معمارنا الليبي.. بارك الله فيك وسدد خطاك.

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  12. وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

    وفيك بارك الله باشمهندسة هويدا،

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  15. السلام عليكم اخى الكريم اتمنى ان تتقبل اعجابى الكبير باعمالك المعماريه الجميله الشكل والوضيفه اخوك المهندس ايمن من مدينه الجمال درنه

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    فائق تقديري لك ولأهل درنة.

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  17. بصراحة اكتشفت هذا الموقع بالصدفة عندما وجدت اختي وهي مهندسة معمارية تتصفح هذه المدونة وصرت الومها لانها لم تخبرني عنها من فبل بصراحة لاني اهتم بالعمارة ممكن اكثر حتي من اختي وانا من اشد المعجبات بالعمارة الليبية القديمة واتمنى ان تنتشر اكثر في طرابلس وليبيا كلها بدل ان تتقلص وتهدم مباني اثرية بدل ان ترمم لانها دليل على حضارتنا ومدى اهتمامنا بالعمارة ( خسارة ان يهدم منزل قديم في ميزران او المدينة القديمة او في اي مكان في ليبيا مبني له تاريخ والا ما الفرق بيننا وبين من هدم مبني البرلمان سابقا واصبح مقهي او ميدان او ....!!!!!

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  19. السلام عليكم ... انا طالبة في كلية الهندسة .. سنة ثالثة معماري ... وهذا السمستر نخذو في مادة اسمها العمارة المحلية يااااريت لو اتسعدوني بجميع المعلومات ...مثلا.. تعريف العمارة المحلية ...عناصرها...اتجاهاتها ..العوامل التي اثرت عليها ... عمارة الكهوف ...وانا لي الشرف اني معاكم ...تحياتي للجميع ...هديل الحاسي ...

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  20. الأخت هديل الحاسي، بالنسبة للعمارة المحلية فهي مجال لا يزال قيد البحث ولم يتم تعريفها ولا تحديد خصائصها ولا اتجاهاتها ولا عناصرها. هي رهينة فقط باجتهادات كل معماري يتبنى هذا التوجه.

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